(suite de <=)
Dr Bernard Auriol
“Spring days” of the French Society of Psychopathology of the expression
(Albi, 31 May and 1st June 1986) [published in " Psychologie Médicale", 1987, 19, 9 ; 1543-1547]
(translated by Béatrice Bonzom-Gourc)
« The purely outward destruction of the « I » is quasi-infernal distress »
On the contrary, it occurs that the image of the body is banned, in such a way that the drawing of the subject doesn’t show any human or even animal forms. All drawing can be even rejected till the more comprehensive collective or personal iconoclasm. From this point of view, we could compare the protective religions of images (African animism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Catholicism, Orthodoxy) and the ones that forbid them (Judaism, Protestantism and overall Islam). Portrait chase is very important in Islam but we can find it in the Thora and the New Testament, even if iconoclasm can’t emerge among Catholic and Orthodox, protestantism and a certain modernity, granted by Vatican II are rejecting again « abuse » of Holy images….It is completely different regarding Hinduism and even Buddhism, despite it «reformed » character.
No self image in the spontaneous drawings
Some people agree or choose to draw pictural or graphic work but are careless about representing themselves.
Turned against his father
Ouattam, self-employed, in his 32 years, has carried out 200 hours but only 8 drawings during 2 years and half. Jealousy with regard to his girlfriend. Inferiority feelings and strong ambition, authority refusal. He says about his father that « he manages to get , scheming with relationships », that he « bawls and wants to dominate the other ». « In my mind, I’m always in conversation with him, (for eight or nine years), in a relationship of conflict! ». At times ; pronounced acne, difficulty in breathing, fast ejaculation.
Naudal (37 years old), being motherless (« she died of love, at my birth »), was brought up by his two grandmothers alternately. He says that his father was very severe and the house very dirty. He complains of (with a nasal voice) constipation, stomach pains, tiredness, obsessions, introversion, complexes…former seminarist, he confesses to be very scrupulous. Since his 16 years, he used to tie himself the hands when he goes to bed in order to avoid masturbating. He had to repress very strong incestuous tendencies with regard to his twin sister. He has behind him six years of psychoanalysis of which he seems to have obtained a great facility of expression and a rationalist use of the freudian concepts. He makes dreams with a passive homosexual content, while he wishes to have a feminine relationship when he is awake.
He made 4 drawings during 120 hours of Tomatis Ear (spread over a period of one year and half) ; no self-portrait.
A Tormented bear
E. Scorcié (27 years old) is a perfectionist student specialized in architecture who tries to anticipate « all the imaginable snags », and to make only « completed works », the result is his extreme slowness of realization and his inability to end his studies, despite an outstanding schooling, a good intellectual level and an excellent memory. It is considered as « a bear », « a tormented soul », despite his self-confidence when he is speaking. Alternately, he claims his loneliness and the communication, sometimes he shows himself in an aggressive way, and even violent, with regard to his wife. He is very jealous. His oldest memory is the one of a baby at the breast and inside a baby carriage. In the past, he somatized under a bronchial way (bronchopneumonia, asthma) ; when all things are going in a bad way, he becomes hypersomniac, feels strong muscular tensions mainly at the jaw, « lombo-dorsalgies », « acouphenes », nausea, « a lump in his stomach that blocks all ». He makes mistakes (lapsus, failed acts, lapse of memory). During 56 hours, within 4 months, he realized 15 drawings all non figurative.
Sam Zoss is 42 years old, He- or more precisely, his wife – complains about his sexual impotence, for which we will not find an organic disorder. « Nevertheless », it is a conscientious and zealous worker who, always from the point of view of his wife, would be inclined to be exploited till to fall ill ; indeed he suffers from « sciatalgies », treated by Mezieres’ physiotherapy. Moreover, he would suffer from « acouphenes », some « lapse of memory », and various signs of an « hidden » depression : headaches, hypersomnia. Thanks to the Tomatis Ear therapy and some sexological advices, he will overcome these symptoms little by little. During the 110 hours of his sonic therapy that he carried out on 8 months, he realized 24 drawings without any self-portrait.
That someone cut them !
Y. Cecoupas is a stammerer in his 22 years who carries out the Tomatis Ear therapy in order to improve his speech. He shares little confidences ; nevertheless I learn that he wants to do a vasectomy, despite his youth. It happens to him, dreaming as well as in the real life, to bang himself on the frame of an opened door or to strike violently on the corner of a table, that he hurt himself and needs to be stitched up…(78 hours, 30 drawings or paintings, any self-portrait).
K.Zanof (26 years old) shows at the MMPI, high scales regarding Hysteria and Psychopathy. Very attractive, he increases the feminine conquests, all the more so since he belongs to a movement that lauds a big freedom in the relationships. He is very extrovert and active. During his Tomatis Ear therapy (60 hours) he realized 19 drawings (no self-portrait).
The spiritual fight
T.Higourou (46 years old) realizes 85 drawings during 125 hours spread over of a period of 16 months. He complains of diabetes with important variations in the glycaemia (treated by diet), various digestive disorders (vesicular disorders, stomach pains), « rachialgies », urticaria with enormous rash crisis from the waist to the neck, allergic rhinitis, thinness, tiredness. It is a « hypomane » person short of spirituality, who uses to addict to several exercices of yoga and of meditation on a twice-daily basis. He finds himself too much aggressive, quick-tempered. He complains about the authoritarianism attitude of his mother and the retiring attitude of his father.
Swap Perversion/ Psychosis and recurrence
Mr. Boadukir is a man in his 38 years. Undesirable child , he was brought up, mainly, far from his family (by his grandmother who did not like him, then inside the military academy). The first pathological events took place during his academic studies : he exposed himself in front of a young girl and more later a young boy ( small prison sentences). Following this, he has carried out a classic psychoanalytical therapy for three years : he has accumulated diploma and got a very interesting job that he will hold for ten years.
When I meet him, he suffers from auditory hallucinations and « interpretative » (influence) phenomena based on the postulate of a feminine persecution (neighbours, niece, his own mother). The following symptoms are broken out after a period of a high level of alcohol and the result of failure at his job. Since, he has been living with his intrusive mother, who is left serviceman’s widow, and who pays a lot of attention to alcohol and tabacco problems.
All sexual excitation (and even all friendly attitude) that he could feel, would be harmful to those (masculine or female person) that would be subjected… himself included. Boadukir gives a very ambivalent attitude regarding this issue, complaining alternately of being impotent (with prostitutes for example) and not being it (when he is thinking about certain persons. « one uses my sexuality in order to «chevrer »). He protects himself using body massage with vegebom and obstructing his ears with earplug. When he is irritated, he feels it especially at neck that he scratches frenetically. He suffers often from sinusitis fronto-maxilla with clear liquid (probably allergic root).
During his sonic therapy treatment (176 hours of « Tomatis Ear » during three years), he realized 148 drawings (any realistic self-portrait). We will see him at the MMPI test to go from a « psychotic profile » (triade Pa, Pt et Sc > 80 at MMPI) to a psychopathic attitude (Pd >80, others scales <70) coming back at structural psychopathological level to it beginning (even if any acting of exhibitionist has been done for)….
On the medical plane, being « cured », at the psychiatric level a bronchial cancer is diagnosed, implying the removal of a lung. Operation to which he will survive only few months….
The father left his mark on him
P. Airdur is a serious and hardworker man ; he shows an excessive interest in checkings (« is my wallet well in my pocket », etc..). His mother had a passive attitude in front of the very hard attitude of his father and this would be the result of his strong shyness with regard to new people, but the more, in front of a man with an authoritarian coldness attitude. The somatical disorders are stomach pains, vomitings, diarrhoea or constipation, headaches, lombalgo. P. Airdur carried out 162 hours (during 4 years) in which he realized 15 non-figurative drawings.
Do you want my picture ?
D. Hurfeuil comes and sees me, in his 30, for partial deafness affecting mainly the high sounds. He recalls when he was in his thirteen to have felt a dreadful fright when he was surprised by the very close noise of a train which was going at full speed while he was playing on a near embankment . He is careful about psychological matter and shows himself radically opposed to some confidence. He carried out eight diagrams in order to help him to solve a jigsaw and any other graphic or pictural work within 42 hours spread over a period of one year and three months.
Refusal to represent oneself
Some people accept or choose to make graphic or pictural work but refuse to represent themselves.
We have searched, among the one hundred files of our patients which include the test of the family drawing, the ones in which the subject had neglected to draw himself (D. Wildlocher, 1965). We have found twelve (six for each sex).
Give me some parents that love me
Erémia writes « I’m focused on wrong problems of decreasing my standing, my prospect is the one of a negative future, from my dissatisfaction of the realized, my position left aside… ». The alternative sets up at the beginning of our meetings is to be relieved or to end with life. The symptoms are represented by the feeling of loneliness, of « dereliction », of insecurity, strong phobic constraint (« as my sister and my mother », « I’m scared of losing me, to be unable to… »), the weight of an unsatisfied conjugal relationship, the lack of sexual relationships, lack of offspring (she became infertile, maybe after the abortion of a child issued from a not very stable relationship. « When my parents died, nothing was fine for me : it was an attractive parental couple that made up for something missing during my chilhood ». Needless to stress on that she had suffered from a serious affective inadequacy on behalf of her own parents !
The average regarding the increase of MMPI is at 66. The hightest notes are particularly the ones of nevrotism (Ne) and of opposition to authority (Pd). The Lüscher’s test shows the instinctive inhibition, the counter-subordination, the fear of the devalorization : « I’m wondering the question of my self image in relation to the others : I saw myself walking in the street, caught and being at odds with myself ». She specifies often the terms of a conflict where, the horror of being « in somebody’s hands » and the inability to release herself from various forms of the need of security, are in direct opposition.
It is only after a large amount of meetings that she recalls her childhood : « I lived bad times, the cold, my father was drinking, my mother was always complaining, she used to confide in ours as if we were adults». « She was very pessimistic, very neurotic : it is her fault if I have never had children… ». Born nine years after her sisters she was even not a boy( !)…
My occasional lateness in receiving her is dramatized : she is abandoned, lost like the « petit Poucet ». She is very sensitive to the anguish of separation « I feel bad when I’m deprived, but, basically, they make me stronger after… ». To be late or to be subject to a lateness is like being lost ; this last term appears also regarding change, whatever it is, mainly regarding choice and also money…This collective fantasy is linked to the social reality of the family, not very wealthy : « I have always lived on a boat ready to sink, because we were always threatened to be turned out of the place where we were living. When we had to move, I used to kiss the walls before leaving ! » « My father felt ill when I was eight years and remained in this state till his death, 17 years later. I used very often to hear if he was breathing ! During puberty time, as I had called him and he was not answering, I believed him died : my periods have stopped for several years ».
She assimilates into Blanche Neige in the following dream : « the mistress of my husband, who had lived in our house, was come back and carried apples…I held it against me for not beating her up as I would like to do ! ». « My mother was jealous regarding the relationships that existed between my father and me. »…
Not sure to be loved
Pimprenelle comes and sees me « between two trains », so to speak ; she mentions two years of analysis in Paris, makes a show of her relationships with such one or such famous psychoanalyst, mentions his former activity as nurse in a Psychiatric Hospital. Her husband unlike his father, would be a man who rejects the work. Recently he starts an analytical approach. She will separate from him « in six months »…Both are living on her activities (esotericism, group activity). The MMPI shows overall an increase at the psychopathic scale, and also of the Ma, Pt, Sc scales. The Lüscher shows a probable reactional refusal regarding the maternal image. Her life is a permanent escape, she is going from one place to another, getting into debt everywhere. She manages to pay none of my consultations other than giving me some words, for her or her girl. The absence of her image in the family drawing is probably the reflect of the feeling of being rejected, not loved. Pimprenelle is looking for her mother on whose she feels that she has rights, by who she has been frustated, who repudiated her, that she is not « sure ».
Neglected because of his younger
Apobol is a young child in his six years, pupil of the nursery high school. We can note rivalry towards his two years younger brother. His mother describes him as a rowdy, aggressive and possessive child : « I ‘m somewhere his scapegoat ». The father has two girls born of a first marriage. It emerges from the test of Lüscher that Apobol has the feeling to be subjected to excessive strictnesses and, despite all his efforts, it doesn’t appear any comprehensive consideration. He has the feeling to be neglected and scorned.
Emétès, 17 years old, complains about anguish crisis characterized by strong sweating, painful « strictions » at the neck and stomach, vomiting that bring him relief. He gets used to bringing them on as a precaution, when appears a travel prospect, a competitive sport, examinations, a restricting place, narrow with people around, etc… The MMPI shows an increase at the Mf, Pt, Sc scales and at the anguish index. He thinks often of death during nightdreaming as well as when he is sleeping. « Why should I live ? Now, I become atheistic.
His parents have just got divorced « because of the suicide attempts » of his mother. He has two brothers that live with him and his mother. He describes his father as a violent, very domineering man ; « he is scaring my brothers » ; « at times, I wish he was died ». Sometimes, he imagines that his father could kill him with his gun. « he had five bullets on his bedside table : this made one bullet for each member of the family, included himself ». He dreams « in the Middle Ages a bearded man is burnt, a kind of pirate who show no reaction ». (the free associations show that he calls to mind from that side the analyst and a grandfather, both bearded).
Emétès is afraid of, if he expresses himself, being dismissed by me hopeless to come back, that I don’t want to see him again. Watching at a « teddy bear » remaining on the divan, he wishes he had one when he was a child, neither something similar, « while my best friend had a blanket of which he could not manage without it around and that I hid it to him- to his great anger- perhaps I wish I had one »…During numerous years « I used to tap my head gathering speed against the wall in order to sleep, always on this side (to the right) »…We know that this « offensa capitis » practical has been compared with a specific attitude of the mother with regard to her child : she looks after him in an irregular, unstable way, giving him maternal affection during a certain period of time, then abandoning him, coming back to him later, etc… She doesn’t give herself permission for taking him in his arms the more it would be necessary (R.M. Silberstein et coll., 1966). This kind of possible interaction shows enough signs in the speech of Emétès so that we can ratify it : he describes the successive contradictory attitudes that she shows towards him and towards his older brother.
After the divorce of his parents, he gives himself the father’s role, even if he denies being like him : « I want to be more liberal », particularly related to the absence of his mother during eight days…It happens to him to sleep next to his mother ; he dreams that he punches her strongly. Besides, it is what he did indeed in his sleep… He rejects « to go out in a night club » despite the objurgations that she did him, asserting that he would be tired if he staid up. His brother wishes to get married and as he has no money he throws this (half) jest « I will sale my arse to old girls… ». Emétès asserts that he could do the same thing, without any trouble because « it is an easy way to make money ».
Thus, we can see here again the rejection of the mother (although occasional, incomplete) and the conflict with the father (life or death question) translating into the absence of the image of oneself in the family drawing.
Béja is in love with her brother Gabertin : “if he gets married one day it will be very hard! I could not stand it ! If his wife is nice with me, all will be fine, but if not…”. She comes and sees me about her very embarrassing stammering that has not redeced to the usual processes (CPPM, speech therapy, acupuncture, etc…). We note also “onychophagy”. She confesses that she “is afraid of being embarrassing inside the family”. The Lüscher test suggests that she feels like neglected and scorned. The MMPI shows a difficult character to handle, making life difficult to her managers. The Pa’s scale that indicates some suspicion, feeling of being wronged , etc is high enough (78). She makes nightmares, she has fears regarding the family. We have to tell that the four children are born within a period of time of four years only ! When her mother was in labour for her second daughter, Béja, she couldn’t help crying. Gabertin the third came after and it will exist a very strong rivalry between them and their younger brother, the little, « Dididier ».
Dialusine is a young girl in her six years old that shows a pressing need of tenderness and affection. She is strained for rivaling, she is racked by all kinds of internal contradictions… She is suffering from the recent separation of her parents, which relationships have began to strain when she was two years old : the father, immigrant and political militant, after some procrastinations has opted, to the detriment of his couple, for a free life in which he could live his homosexuality without any familial obstacles. During some months, he has taken into Dialusine’s care, then sent back to her mother, saying that he didn’t want to see her anymore because she has asthma like her mother, looks like her « to this point »…
Orphania, 61 years old comes and sees me for depressions that follow one another, on the occasion of several events : driving licence, road accident where her niece has been « smashed », accident of her alcohoolic sister who killed a passer-by,… The MMPI shows an increase at 74 regarding « psychastheny »’s scale (tendency for meticulousness, anxio-depressive phenomenon, etc). When she has been « cured » of her depressive situation which has been her own for several years, it is for developing a somewhat excessive excitation accompanied with a troublesome easily or even very clearly aggressive activity (hypomania).
Moreover, she says that she has an inferiority complex, to feel nervous, to suffer from a certain lonelyness despite her religious community life that she shares and « could not blossom her out ». She joined the convent when she was 17 years old after being brought up in this same place since the death of her father (she was 4 years old). Her beginnings in this place were traumatizing : « I took me eight days to get accustomed, crying without stopping in order to come back home . They said that a good whipping calmed me down ! »… Her brother, him, has remained close to her mother….
Epoudos (25 years old) goes and sees me “in order to progress”. He is left-handed, shows a slightly scoliosis and its consequences (pains…), speaks in a two tones voice, says that he is a selfish person, has doubts regarding his own sincerity, describes himself with a cynical attittude, but, basically, not very self-confident…He is looking for “taking up the place” speaking a lot, showing himself mainly on a conciliating and engaging or even weak way : “I let me tread on my toes even if it means imagining to put a bomb inside his car or putting the fire at his home…”; he has also explicit and aggressive movements with regard to his equals and to his superiors because he gets easily upset, he says that he is jealous for everything. Psychiatrist that he has already met (under the parental authority) have alternately shaken him up or reassured him…He meets various setbacks and, each times, he thinks about suicide instead of facing issues. He exclaims : « how does it make sense that I manage to get into trouble and after I’m surprised ? » . He says about his mother that she is possessive, that their link is symbiotic ; he claims that he is independent of her with difficulty but becomes involved in the ways that she intensely scorns : firstly shopkeeper, then employee…when his mother is subjected to an hysterectomy and felt depressed he asserts that « I still have to protect myself against her ; I must always stay on my guard, otherwise she will regain power ». He dreams that he holds in the hand a swinsuit too much large, then he realizes that is the one of his mother. He very often fantasizes an attack « from behind » or that « he is going to be eaten with big teeth »…When he is alone, he has the feeling to be abandoned, rejected. « If I was alone then I will not exist (feeling of dying alive) ». «One (my mother, and also my father, too much retired) would have me believe that the moon is made of green cheese ».It is noteworthy that he has been subjected to frenquent urologycal checkup (with rectal examination) accompanied by his father, prostate sufferer, for small urinary emissions following to normal miction…
A lot of elements call to mind the « Kleinien paranoide » position. Why one’s forget in all the sense of the expression ? Not obviously because he would have been neglected or abandoned by his mother, but rather because he fantasizes the persecution, repulsion, including with him such brother that he also avoids to drawing, whereas he shows his existence, declaring that he is out of the house…
Demosion is 15 years old when he comes to see me. His mother, a spanish woman, and rejected by her husband’s parents for this reason, should have to be hospitalized during the major part of her pregnancy « in order to keep him », then he has been subjected to an « blood transfusion ». He got asthma like his father, when he was three years old, which coincides with the creation of his younger brother of whose he always shows jealousy with regard to him afterwards. He becomes famous at school through aptitude for studying held carefully fallow : « can improve », « does not take part »,etc…The mother is suffering from depression with nighmares, headaches, cervical osteoarthritis, « mastose ». Continual conflicts with his father can be noticed. He plan to become police inspector. The Lüscher test shows that he has the feeling of being neglected and scorned.
Muniés is an industrial manager in his 25 years old. He finds himself hypersensitive and is victim of repetitive situations that confront him with a problem. He has some issues with his colleagues and managers, as he used to get with his parents, « I’m living in an endless fighting », he says. Moreover, his very advanced religious process cut it off from the concrete of the action…He would rather join the probationary of a religious order rather than following a therapy. Previously, when he was student, « he was fighting against anonymity », had difficulties for studying, he constantly went and saw teachers. He is not very self confident. He says about his mother that she was a hard, moralizing person and has given little affection to her family. Himself has the feeling tobe misunderstood especially…The MMPI shows an increase on several scales, mainly on those which suggest an opposition to the authority, a feminine identification, some excitation…Regarding the Lüscher test, we can note that he « applies himself to proving himself in order to free himself from fear of deprivation and of exclusion ». Regarding his drawing of the family, he specifies that interest was focused on his sister instead of him…
Psellos is eight years old when I examine him for a stammering issue. He is a very gentle, shy child, exaggerating his willingness but very slow, slighly “his head in the clouds”, left-handed wrongly “lateralized”. His parents lays stress on his very strong jealousy regarding his two young sisters (5 and 3 years old). Rivalry that confirm the drawings that he made with the sun : alternately rays appear big and small…(Cf. Monique Pagés-Bord, the sun representation in the drawing of the child, 1974). His favorite readings are related to : “Tom Thumb, Snow White and Little Red Riding Hood”…He is also very interested by Skelettor and Thao (“abandoned child”)…
Brunehilde is a teacher in her 45 years old and is sent to me by her acupuncturist for a strong depressive state which has been resisting to the classical chemotherapy as well as alternative medecines since one year. With a childhood girlfriend, she has a very satisfying sentimental and sexual life, marked by quarrels and reconciliations. In order to give an explanation to her depressive state, she puts the bad health of her parents forward, overall the falling down of the intellectual abilities of her mother and who shows strong memory’s disorders. Indeed, she will become later aware of the strong aggressiveness that she was unconsciously developing with regard to this woman ; she calls out to her father « we are going to be eaten (by her) both ! ». Brunehilde has frequent conflicts with the head of the school, that she believes to have harmful strengths. She declares : « my father shows humanity and generosity, former officer of the French Colonial Army ; I identify myself with him : I have got the same twitch, the same gesture, the same emotionalism ». Later, during her psychotherapy she will confess, regarding a priest with whom she gets relationships closer and closer : « I imagine to give my life for him »…Priests, forbidden objects, have always fascinated her…For her, it is the resurgence of previous incestuous dreams with her mother (« because he is very feminine ») as well as her father. When she was a child she couldn’t stand that a conflict went on between one of her two parents, she was doing her best in order to get a reconciliation. She looked like a little boy when she was alone ( most of part of the year) with her mother (teacher). She adopted an internal status in accordance to her body during her father’s vacations (serviceman) who, then joined them and that she found too much retiring in front of her spouse a more intellectual person. Her sexual image will improve during the therapy : « I have the feeling to be neither a man nor a woman, only an human being ! ». At another time : « I desire some men as if they were woman and me a man »… and « I see my sexual relationship as a power point which would have a male tip and a female housing. »
Brunehilde finds herself excluded of the family drawing which mother is the strongest element, while this last one wished a boy and never gave up this desire….The contradiction brought by the reality could only result by aggressivity combined with surprotection.
In order to draw up the profile of the subjects that reject to include their own body in the one of the family, we will call back some conclusions for each one of the twelve observations available.
1. Eremia is very reserved, enigmatic regarding her chilhood that she suggests to have been very terrible : alcoholic father, groaning mother, poverty. She was born by « accident », nine years later after others and her quality of girl has not been appreciated by her mother.
2. Pimprenelle is looking for her mother who repudiates her, who is not « sure ».
3. Apobole is subjected to excessive strictness, he has the feeling to be neglected, scorned. There is a strong rivalry with regard to his younger brother.
4. Emetes was brought out by a mother sometimes attentive, sometimes careless, he fears to receive a gunfire from his father and relieves his anguish by spontaneous or produced vomiting.
5. Beja has the feeling of being neglected and scorned in her family…very numerous. At her birth, her mother could not stop crying. Intensive rivalry with her brothers.
6. Dialusine is born in a disarranged couple : both parents send her back to each one, disguising or not their rejection. Orphania was four years old when her father died ; then she is abandoned and sent by her mother to a religious orphanage, while her brother remains at home…
7. Epoudos is jealous of everyone and of all things, has easily thoughts of suicide ; he has the fantasy to be eaten with gusto. He describes her mother as a very possessive person ; he has a strong repressed homosexual component. He can’t stay alone, because he has an intensive feeling of being abandoned and to die alive. He shows the main points of the « paranoide » position.
8. Demosion is the fruit of a marriage in which her mother has not got something out of it. He has the feeling of being rejected and scorned by her and her by her husbands’s parents. Intensive fraternal rivalry.
9. Munies has a very hard mother, without terderness, rejecting the masculine sex. He has the feeling of being cast out despite his feminine identification effort. Intensive fraternal rivalry.
10. Psellos has the fantasy of being an abandoned child, being linked with the birth of his two younger sisters that he feels more loved than him.
11. The mother of brunehilde wished a boy and could not resign herself to accepting her as a girl. Consequently mutual hate, maternal over protection, exaggerated filial dependency feeling of being rejected…
In most of cases, and with a degree more or less strong, in a more or less explicit way, we find that the persons who reject to represent themselves in the family drawing have been indeed, at a certain time, rejected by their mother ( and often by their father). Sometimes this reject has been accompanied by an compensating over protection, of an excessive and stifling love. Very often, we can notice rivalry against authority and rivalry with regard to the fraternal members the best considered …
The disappearance of oneself is at the forefront, the character paints a world in which he is excluded : he cannot put himself WITH his family but only IN FRONT OF it. His disappearance is more similar to murder than suicide ! At the clinical level, various details show this meaning of speaking ; either in my observations or in the statistics of L.Y.Levin (1978) : we can see the oneself « dysrepresentation » in the drawing to be accompanied with a very strong tendency to failure at school (P < .008), mainly in reading and to medico-psychological disorders.
If it is not men he will be in front of them, against them or for them, voice coming from the sky : upholder of the law, prophet or rival. Since, it is not surprising to find among the great religions, among the great men, the biographical path of the bringing up by the earthly parents : Isaac was within an inch of death by his putative father’s care, Abraham, the father of the faithful ! (Genesis, 22). Moses is abandoned in a basket in the Nil waters (Exodus, 2) and Mohamed is an orphan ( Koran, 93, 6-8), as well as Confucius ! Jesus is introduced to us as a child without earthly father (CF. for example Mathieu, 1, 18-24) while Buddha is leaving his family (where he should not have the feeling of being so well integrated as his « hagiographs » would like to suppose it)…
Leonardo da Vinci as well is without father from the age of three ! And he got two mothers...
Very often we notice that the only possibility for the subject to symbolize his relationships with his family’s world is by the absence or the conflict ; from this point of view we are in an acting position, mainly of extra-punitive type : even if the suicide ideas are often raised, the conflict and the rivalry seems to have the edge on the other one. We can notice the opposition to the familial and law of the men authority , the sulky depression or aggressive exitation, Cain’s hate (Genesis, 4) with his bad fruits, the one of Ismael, bow user (Genesis, 21), the one of Esau (Genesis, 25) condemned as well to live of his sword, that the Zohar (C. Mopsik, 1984, p.296) comments «it is up to you to spill blood and to carry on wars. »
The Narcissus’ myth involves the hero’s death. Abstractly we can find the invasive implication of the instinct of death of which the first definition made by Freud (1929) in the "Das unbehagen in der kultur", where it can be read all the characteristics of what the physicists call « entropy ». Stationary feed-back of an indefinite repetition from oneself to oneself, attraction of what it plans as (conservative) prospect in a future without plans…. As all creative image, in a such way, a « neguentropique » side intertwines even so at the mirror trap. Very often, among the drawings sets that we had – that I called of first type- any different details from the author’s own face disappear. Regarding the other details of the work, they are represented on a scrawled or geometrical side, in any case non representative. There is here a special and « mono-idolizing » iconoclasm, that results as if his own image was the only one authorized idol. It will be, in this way, deprived of it roots at the world, idol with feet of clay (Daniel, s.d) that, despite the majesty of it face will collapse to the smallest impact on it basis. This restriction of the imaginary that can be represented implies the inability to shape the oneself relationships in front of the world. The only one interlocutor in the Universe is the ego that everything should adore. Except if it disappointing, and the result will be the self-destruction that the myth suggests.
In concrete terms, the somatization, the (anal or stomachal mainly) depression, love failures, homosexuality of conflict (at the conscious or preconscious level) and the depression are often met.
The self-portrait of the second type, as well as the refusal to appear in the family drawing, presents itself as a research, a metabolism, an exchange of the features between the imaginary self and the other that wait for or refuse ; vital processus that can be « neguentropique ».
The realistic self-portrait, of the first type, tries an « homeostasis » of the identity without any borrowing or waste, in a crystalline, angelical till death attitude, because the « entropy » could only be disarmed on the system opening !